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First Aid

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Artificial Respiration
    1. If victim appears to be unconscious, tap victim on the shoulder and shout, "Are you okay?" Look, listen and feel for breathing.
    2. If victim is not breathing, begin artificial respiration at once.
    3. Tilt the victim's head backward so chin is pointing upward.


    4. Pinch nose closed. Place your mouth tightly around victim's mouth and blow into his mouth. Volume is important. Blow quickly four times. 

    5. Check for the pulse at the side of the neck for five (5) seconds. If there is no pulse, and no breathing, begin CPR if you have been trained. Classes are available through American Red Cross.


    6. If the victim has a pulse but is not breathing, begin artificial respiration - one breath every five (5) seconds for adults.
    7. Watch victims chest to see when it rises. Stop blowing when chest is expanded: raise your mouth; turn your head to side and listen for exhalation. Watch victim's chest to see that it falls; rhythmically repeat the blowing cycle.


    8. On an infant or small child, tilt head slightly. Cover and seal mouth and nose with your mouth, and blow (shallow breath) once every three (3) seconds.


    1. A person who has a completely blocked airway cannot breathe, cough or speak.
    2. Ask, "Can you speak?" If not, the victim's airway is completely blocked. Give four back blows up between the shoulder blades. The head should be lower than the chest, if possible.


    3. If unsuccessful - stand behind victim, wrap your arms around victim's middle, just above the navel. Clasp your fist with your other hand and press into the victim's abdomen with four (4) quick upward thrusts.


    4. If four back blows and four thrusts do not work, repeat the sequence.
    5. Do not give up!

Unconscious Victim

    1. If you have tilted the victim's head backward and tried to breathe for the victim but you are not getting air exchange, and there is no foreign material visible in the mouth, reposition the head and attempt to ventilate again.
    2. If this does not work turn the victim on his side and strike between the shoulder blades four (4) times.



    3. Roll the victim on his back and give four abdominal thrusts by placing the heel of one hand between the rib cage and the navel and thrusting upwards towards the head.


    4. Wipe foreign matter from the mouth with fingers and try to give breaths again. Repeat the entire sequence until successful.



Ailments, Symptoms and First Aid
Signs and Symptoms First Aid

Symptoms may vary greatly. Aids to determine whether poison was swallowed:

    1. Information from victim or observer
    2. Presence of poison container
    3. Condition of victim (sudden onset of pain or illness)
    4. Burns around lips
    5. Breath odor
    6. Pupil contracted to pinpoint size

All Victims:

  • Call Emergency Rescue Squad
  • Call Poison control Center
  • Save label or container for I.D.
  • Save sample of vomitus material

Conscious Victims:

  • Dilute the poison with milk or water
  • Do not neutralize with counteragents
  • Do not give oils

Unconscious Victims:

Maintain open airway (victim on side)


  • Skin pale (or blush), cold to touch; possible moist or clammy
  • Weakness
  • Rapid pulse (over 100)
  • Rate of breathing usually increases; may be shallow or deep and irregular
  • Keep victim lying down. Cover him only enough to keep him from losing body heat; obtain medical help as soon as possible.

Fractures & Dislocations

  • Pain and tenderness
  • May have difficulty moving injured part
  • Obvious deformities-swelling and discoloration
  • Keep broken bone ends and adjacent joints from moving and give care for shock.
  • Call for medical help.


Skin is:

  • Red - 1st degree
  • Blistered - 2nd degree
  • Charred - 3rd degree

Pain of first degree and of a small second degree burn can be relieved by excluding air. Three ways to exclude air from 1st or 2nd degree burns only:

  • Submerge in cold water (do not use ice)
  • Apply a cold pack
  • Cover with a thick dressing
  • Do not apply grease or ointment.
  • For 3rd degree burn, cover with dry clean cloth and call for medical help. If any burn occurs to the victim's face area, watch for possible need for artificial respiration.

Heart Attack

Three principle symptoms:

    1. Acute pain in chest, upper abdomen or down left arm and shoulder
    2. Extreme shortness of breath
    3. Absence of pulse and breathing in an unconscious person.

Place victim in comfortable position, usually sitting up. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If no pulse is present administer CPR. Call for medical help and give prescribed medication, if any. Do not give liquids to unconscious victims. Take a CPR class, available through the American Red Cross

Loss Of Consciousness

Unresponsive - Keep victim warm and lying down, head turned to one side. If unconsciousness is not regained quickly,the following information books and pamphlets are available at your local Red Cross chapter:

  • Drugs and their abuse
  • First aid for poisoning
  • First aid for snakebite
  • First aid for foreign body obstruction of airway · Heart Attack (CPR)
  • Safety and survival in an earthquake
  • Standard first aid and personal safety
  • Advanced first aid and emergency care

Psychological First Aid

What is Psychological first Aid?

First Aid is just what its name implies. It is the initial help received by a person in trouble. Such aid should be concerned only with the immediate situation. The First Aid goal should be either to return moderately disabled persons to reasonably good function in a short time, or to make more seriously disable persons as comfortable as possible until they can be given more complete care.

  • Accept every person's right to his own feelings.
  • Attempt to calm the victim, relieve the anxiety and stress.
  • Communicate confidence in yourself.
  • Accept a person's limitations as real.
  • Contact members of his family or support system.
  • Size up a disturbed person's abilities as accurately and quickly as possible.
  • Encourage the person to speak freely about whatever is on his mind, allowing him to "ventilate" his feelings.
  • When the person begins talking, interrupt as little as possible. After you have heard the full story, you can ask for details. Practice "Active Listening."
  • Do not argue with the person if he disagrees with you.
  • In helping a child, deal with issues indirectly, and provide food and comforting.
  • Do not impose your methods of problem-solving upon the disaster victim; his own solutions will be the most successful for him.
  • Accept your own limitations in a relief role. Do not attempt to be all things to all people.

Emotional and Psychological Consideration in Disaster

Factors of disaster which might affect the emotional recovery process:

    1. Was the family separated? If a family can be evacuated as a unit, the concern regarding the whereabouts and condition of the family members is not as overwhelming.
    2. What is the availability of outside help?
    3. Were appropriate leaders making decisions and giving directions? When this occurs, the frustration and confusion is decreased tremendously.
    4. Were communication avenues available for communicating with family and friends and for decreasing community rumors which run rampant?
    5. Was evacuation planning organized with concern and regard for people as well as safety?

Disaster is a crisis in itself, however disaster and the crisis situation is increased when it is accompanied by:

    1. Death
    2. Injury
    3. Family problems
    4. Job and/or financial difficulties
    5. Illness
    6. Loss of personal belongings

Factors in dealing with crisis, either your own or that of family or friends:

    1. The key is to be able to talk about the experience and express the feelings accompanying the experience.
    2. To be fully aware of the reality of what has happened.
    3. To resume concrete activity and be able to reconstruct the pre-disaster life routine.

A key point to remember in disaster preparedness and the psychological facts involved:

  • The more planning that can be done beforehand, the better the family will be equipped to deal with the disaster.